The purpose and focus is INNOVATION - how students can work innovatively to solve real-world problems or create real-world value. So in comparison with PBL there is extra focus on brainstorming, creativity and of course innovation.
It has 4 phases and is basically basically design thinking. :
F - forstaa = Understand (which is about linking to previous knowledge or any connections students might have with the topic)
I - idefase = Ideate (create a ton of ideas, silly and good ones, prioritize, select. There are a bunch of techniques that can be used)
R - realiser = realize (carry out the project)
E - evaluer = evaluate
This phase is about understanding and about linking to previous knowledge or to any connections which the students may have with the topic. In this phase, the students investigate what they want to improve, who the improvement will help and why. When they have succeeded in this, it is time to define the essential question.
This phase is about creating a ton of ideas. Therefore it is important that there is room for all sorts of ideas - also those ideas which might sound a bit crazy. Maybe the crazy ideas will end up making the idea finally chosen even better by posing different questions or angles to the idea. When all the ideas are out, the students sort, prioritize, asses and select the idea which they will work with.
After the prototype has been tested and the reactions to it has been considered, the final prototype can be made. Then the product has to be presented to the group of people, who is the main target group for this product. If it isn't possible to present it to the main target group, then it must be to a group considered to be similar to the main target group as to age, interests etc. Finally, the product can then be given to the main target group.
This phase is about carrying out the project. In this phase, the first attempts to make a prototype are carried out, which will help the students getting even closer to the solution and using their knowledge regarding this particular field. The students try out their proposals through this prototype, which also helps them to better understand their project and how to make it even better. Because of the many attempts to make the prototype, it can be a good idea to make the first prototypes for example as a sketch. When the prototype is to be tested for the first time, it is best to have some other students test it, rather than the students who have been involved in the project.
This phase is about evaluating and reflecting upon the learning expericenses and the proces of the project. The students are requested to reflect upon what they have learned and how the realisation of their project went. When the students talks about it and put their thoughts in to words about their learning proces and their understanding hereof - they build new knowledge.